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Understanding Your Back Pain: Types, Causes, and Treatment.

Golf Player with Back Injury
Golf Player with Back Injury

Dealing with back pain can be an overwhelming experience, with its impact felt in every aspect of daily life. It’s important to understand that back pain is not uniform; it varies in duration and intensity, and is classified as either acute or chronic. There’s also a particular type known as sciatica, which has its own unique symptoms and causes.


This blog post written by Dan Smith Director of Sports and Spinal Physio LTD, aims to provide you with a clear understanding of the different types of back pain, helping you identify what you may be experiencing. Armed with this knowledge, you can make informed decisions about how you can managing your back pain effectively.


We will guide you through the specifics of acute and chronic back pain, and explain sciatica in detail, with links to comprehensive leaflets for further information on each condition. Understanding your back pain is the first step towards managing it and improving your quality of life.


Acute Back Pain

Acute back pain is characterised by a sudden onset of discomfort in the back, typically stemming from a specific incident or injury. This type of pain is sharp and can be quite intense, serving as a signal from your body that something is amiss.

What Causes Acute Back Pain?

The causes of acute back pain are varied, but it often arises from muscle strains, ligament sprains, or other soft tissue injuries. These can result from a range of activities or events, such as lifting heavy objects incorrectly, abrupt movements, falls, or accidents.

Symptoms and Sensations

The sensations associated with acute back pain can include a stabbing or shooting pain, a deep muscle ache, or a limited range of motion in the back. You may also experience muscle spasms, pain that radiates to the buttocks or thigh, but usually not below the knee, and increased pain with movements or activities.


Acute back pain is typically short-term, lasting anywhere from a few days to a few weeks. It usually resolves on its own with self-care and there is no residual loss of function. The body’s natural healing process tends to take over, but being mindful of activities and posture can aid in a quicker recovery.

When to See a Medical Professional

It’s important to seek medical attention if your back pain is severe and not improving with rest, if you have numbness or tingling, or if you experience weakness in your limbs. Additionally, if the pain is a result of a serious injury, or if it’s accompanied by other symptoms like fever, you should consult a professional.


For a more detailed exploration of acute back pain, its causes, symptoms, and management strategies, please refer to our comprehensive  – leaflet on acute back pain.


Chronic Back Pain Relief

Chronic back pain persists for a prolonged period, typically defined as lasting for more than three months. Unlike acute back pain, which is often related to a specific incident, chronic back pain can develop over time and is sometimes less directly associated with a single event.

What Causes Chronic Back Pain?

Chronic back pain can stem from a variety of factors. It may begin as acute pain but persist due to a failure to heal properly. In other instances, it could be linked to degenerative conditions such as arthritis, disc disease, or ongoing stress to the back muscles due to posture or occupational activities.

Symptoms and Sensations

The symptoms of chronic back pain can range from a continuous, dull ache to persistent, sharp pain. The discomfort may be intermittent or constant and could potentially disrupt sleep and daily activities. Chronic back pain may also lead to a reduction in flexibility and strength, affecting one’s ability to perform routine tasks.

Differences from Acute Back Pain

The distinction between chronic and acute back pain lies not only in the duration but also in the nature of the pain. Chronic back pain may not always have a clear cause and can be more challenging to treat. It is often accompanied by psychological factors such as depression or anxiety, which can exacerbate the pain experience.

Risk Factors

Several risk factors increase the likelihood of developing chronic back pain, including aging, lack of regular exercise, prior injury, poor posture, and underlying medical conditions. Stress and smoking are also contributing factors that can affect back health.


For a deeper insight into chronic back pain, including potential treatment options and coping strategies, check out our detailed leaflet on chronic back pain.



Sciatica is a term that describes pain radiating along the path of the sciatic nerve, which branches from your lower back through your hips and buttocks and down each leg. Typically, sciatica affects only one side of your body and can arise when the sciatic nerve is irritated or compressed.

Underlying Causes of Sciatica

The most common cause of sciatica is a herniated disk, bone spur on the spine, or narrowing of the spine (spinal stenosis) that compresses part of the nerve. This compression causes inflammation, pain, and often some numbness in the affected leg.

Symptoms of Sciatica

Pain that originates in the spine and radiates down the back of the leg is the hallmark of sciatica. You might feel discomfort almost anywhere along the nerve pathway, but it’s especially likely to follow a path from your low back to your buttock and the back of your thigh and calf. The pain can vary widely, from a mild ache to a sharp, burning sensation or excruciating discomfort. Sometimes it can feel like a jolt or electric shock and can be worsened by prolonged sitting or sudden movements.

Distinguishing Sciatica from Other Back Pain

Sciatica is distinct from other types of back pain in that the pain originates in the spine but then extends down the back of the leg. Another characteristic feature of sciatica is that the pain is usually unilateral, affecting one leg.

Risk Factors

Risk factors for sciatica include age-related changes in the spine, such as herniated disks and bone spurs, obesity, occupation that requires you to twist your back, carry heavy loads, or drive a motor vehicle for long periods, prolonged sitting, and diabetes.

Sciatica Pain Management Tips

To understand more about the causes of sciatica, its symptoms, and how it is diagnosed and treated, you can check out our two leaflets Low Back Pain and Sciatica and Sciatica: Causes and Treatments to learn more click here.


Seeking Treatment

When back pain disrupts your daily life, seeking professional advice is essential. The type of specialist you choose – whether a physiotherapist, osteopath, chiropractor, or another medical professional – will depend on the nature and severity of your pain, as well as your personal preference and the treatment philosophies that align with your own beliefs about health and wellbeing.

When to See a Specialist

You should consider scheduling an appointment if your back pain is severe and not improving with self-care, if it persists for more than a few weeks, or if it prevents you from engaging in normal activities. Additionally, if your back pain is accompanied by other symptoms like fever, weight loss, or significant leg weakness, it’s crucial to seek professional help immediately.

Importance of an Accurate Diagnosis

An accurate diagnosis is the foundation of effective treatment. It can help in identifying the underlying cause of the pain and ruling out more serious conditions. A healthcare professional will perform a physical exam and may request imaging tests, like an MRI or CT scan, to get a detailed view of the internal structures of your back.

Self-Care Strategies

While waiting for your appointment, there are self-care strategies you can employ to help manage your pain. These may include applying heat or cold to the affected area, engaging in light activities that don’t strain your back, and over-the-counter pain relief if necessary. Avoid activities that worsen your pain, and focus on gentle movements that keep you mobile without increasing discomfort. For more information on self-care strategies you can read more here.  For simple exercises take a look here and for some  postural improvement techniques read this  .



In this post we’ve examined the distinct characteristics of acute, chronic, and sciatica-related back pain. Understanding these differences is important, as it informs the approach to managing and treating your condition. Acute back pain is typically a transient condition, whereas chronic back pain often requires a more comprehensive management plan. Sciatica is unique due to its specific pain pathway and may necessitate targeted treatments.

By being informed about the symptoms and risk factors for each type of back pain, you can make educated choices about your care. Seeking a proper diagnosis and professional medical advice should be your priorities if you experience persistent or severe symptoms.

If you’re struggling with back pain and looking for personalised care and expert advice, don’t hesitate to reach out to us. Our team of skilled professionals is dedicated to providing you with tailored treatment plans that cater to your unique needs. Contact us today to schedule a consultation and take the first step towards a pain-free life. Book Your Consultation Now or book a free phone call with one of our clinicians here.


Disclaimer: This article is intended for educational purposes only and should not be taken as professional medical advice. The information provided herein is based on general medical knowledge and does not account for individual circumstances. It is crucial to consult with a qualified healthcare provider for diagnosis and treatment options tailored to your specific health condition.


Author: Dan Smith BSc Hons Physio HCPC (Dan has over 25 years experience treating spines and has a particular interest in chronic spinal pain, headaches and migraines. Over the year he has  received some amazing results and very positive reviews)